The difficulties noted below are often associated with dyslexia if they are unexpected for the individual's age, educational level, or cognitive abilities. A qualified diagnostician can test a person to determine if he or she is truly dyslexic.

* May be slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds.

* Has difficulty decoding single words (reading single words in isolation).

* Has difficulty spelling phonetically.

* Makes consistent reading and spelling errors such as:
o Letter reversals - "d" for "b" as in: "dog" for "bog"
o Word reversals - "tip" for "pit"
o Inversions - "m" for "w," "u" for "n"
o Transpositions - "felt" for "left"
o Substitutions - "house" for "home"

* May confuse small words - "at" for "to," "said" for "and," "does" for "goes."

* Relies on guessing and context.

* May have difficulty learning new vocabulary.

* May transpose number sequences and confuse arithmetic signs (+ - x / =).

* May have trouble remembering facts.

* May be slow to learn new skills; relies heavily on memorizing without understanding.

* May have difficulty planning, organizing and managing time, materials and tasks.

* Often uses an awkward pencil grip (fist, thumb hooked over fingers, etc.).

* May have poor "fine motor" coordination.